The Beginning, Before Men Wrote the Myths
Gaea -- the earliest Greek Earth Mother -- originally emerged from Chaos and gave birth to the heavens (Uranus) the earth and the sea.
As Greek mythology became patriarchal her concept was diminished and her powers were distributed to lesser Gods and Goddesses. Accordingly, a comprehensive mythology is difficult to find.
1. Gaea rose naked out of Chaos, divided the sea from the sky, created the serpent from the wind (Ophion) who coupled with her. She then assumed the form of a dove and laid the creation egg. Also associated with Euronome (Pelasgian), Rhea (Crete) and Tellus Mater (Roman).
2. As Goddess of Fecundity, she presided over al life and personified the earth as it was formed. With Uranus she formed the first divine couple and brought to the world gods and monsters. She is Mother Earth, fertile origin of everything.
3. According to Hesoid, Gaea had been the great deity of primitive Greece.
4. A Homeric hymn says "I shall sing of Gaea, universal mother, firmly founded, the oldest of divinities."
5. She is often called the deep breasted one who nourishes all that exists.
6. She was at one time the supreme Goddess whose majesty was acknowledged both by men and gods.
7. It was she whom the gods invoked when making oaths, "I swear by Gaea and the vast sky above her."
8. She created the universe and bore the first race of the gods and also gave birth to the human race.
9. Her power was also manifest in foretelling the future. The Oracle of Delphi originally belonged to Gaea. Later, when the dynasty of the Olympians rose in the estimation of man, her role became less important to the increasingly paternalistic society.